Late last year, Chiraq dispatched French mercenaries unilaterally, without a coalition and sans an UN Security Council resolution to the Ivory Coast for the purpose of ensuring the free flow of cocoa beans to French, German and Belgium chocolatiers.
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quote:France, which has more than 1,500 troops currently in Ivory Coast, was initially mandated as a buffer force to maintain a fragile ceasefire signed on 17 October, between the government troops and the Ivory Coast Patriotic Movement (MPCI) rebel group.
However in recent weeks new rebels groups have emerged in the west of the country and have not entered peace talks.
quote: French and West African troops in Ivory Coast have won a mandate from the United Nations Security Council to use force in peacekeeping operations there. The Security Council voted unanimously on Tuesday to back the troops' deployment with a review of the situation in six months' time. Source: BBC
The neo-colonialist Chiraq dispatched French mercenaries to the Ivory Coast in 2002 unilaterally, without a vast international coalition and WITHOUT UN approval where the mercenaries promptly got about the business of killing native Ivorians.
An UNSC resolution was voted on and approved 15-0 in Feb. 2003.
It is worth noting, the "pacifist" Germans, and the "war is always an admission of failure" French voted for application of military force in the Ivory Coast, while they were advocating against military force in Iraq.
I do not recall EUropeans taking to the streets of Gay Paree, Bonn or London protesting against Chirac's War for Cocoa.
quote: British soldiers have been deployed to the Ivory Coast to help British citizens caught up in a coup. Foreign nationals, mainly American and French, are trapped by fighting in the West African country.
Around 200 US troops arrived in neighbouring Ghana on Wednesday on a mission to safeguard about 160 American schoolchildren trapped by fighting.
A small team of military experts have been sent from the UK to see if further British intervention is required.
But of course, the version of France invading Ivory Coast sounds much better than
quote: Immigrant farmers are continuing to flee a cocoa area in central Ivory Coast after long-standing ethnic tensions were provoked by a bitter election campaign. At least six people are known to have died in two days of clashes since violence flared at an election rally in Daloa on Tuesday.
You are not quoting me when you posted "'invaded'".
I wrote Chiraq "dispatched" mercenaries, and referred to the application of military force.
America and England were acting in a purely humanitarian fashion.
Chiraq dispatched troops to KILL for COCOA BEANS.
In fact, many native Ivorians protested against Dominique de Villepin and his power-sharing/regime change proposal with Islamic militants -- many of them illegal immigrants -- threatening to violently and with great bloodshed unseat a constitutionally and democratically elected president
Chiraq is a cowboy who sent mercenaries to the Ivory Coast for his rich BIG COCOA friends the neo-colonialist, white supremacist, white separatist French imperialists who rape and exploit Ivory Coast resources for French, German and Belgium chocolatiers and chocoholics.
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No, I'm not quoting you. There's another usage to the ' ' apart from quoting someone.
quote: EDIT: Correction of quote Since independence from France in 1960, Ivory Coast has been by far the most stable and economically successful country in Francophone Africa. Under the leadership of the authoritarian but benevolent Felix Houphouet-Boigny from 1960 to 1993, the country prospered. Lacking in natural resources, Ivory Coast’s economy was driven by small-scale agriculture, and was so successful that the country had a chronic shortage of labor for decades. Stability was guaranteed in part by ensuring that the small and politically irrelevant military stayed that way. That was by no means accidental: France maintained a strong military presence, which served both as a protector of extensive French investments and as an effective deterrent against an institution that in so many other African states has been a source of instability and ruin.
All this ended in December 1999, when the military overthrew the corrupt and ineffective, but elected, government of Henri Conan Bedie as France stood by. Not long ago, this would have been inconceivable, but France’s Socialist-Communist government now ostensibly eschews “interference” in other countries' internal affairs and therefore contented itself with impassivity in the face of the emerging crisis.
In the short time since the coup, the disastrous results have been almost mind-numbingly predictable. The economy collapsed, and as resources grew increasingly scarce, ethnic and religious cleavages surfaced and conflicts between natives and immigrants became acute. The initial coup was followed by other attempted coups. Mutinous soldiers exacted tribute from their nominal boss, General Robert Guei, and looted what had been one of Africa’s most attractive capitals. Foreign investors fled.
quote: Ivory Coast. The Ivory Coast, the world's largest exporter of cocoa beans, has a predominantly Christian south and a Muslim north, and attracts Muslim migrants from its poor northern neighbors to work on cocoa farms. Felix Houphouet-Boigny, the country's longtime autocratic ruler who invited migrants into the country, died in 1993, and the Christian leaders who followed him favored the south.
Alassane D. Ouattara, a popular leader from the more heavily populated and predominantly Muslim northern region, was barred from the election in September 2000, and the military in the north revolted in September 2002. Fighting between the rebels and the government continued in Fall 2002, prompting France to intervene.
The price of cocoa beans in the world market has increased in the past two years, but Ivorian farmers have not enjoyed higher prices. In the London market, cocoa prices reached a two-year high of $2,400 a ton in October 2002, and ended the month at $2,000. Ivory Coast produces about 40 percent of the world's cocoa, and the September 2002 fighting threatened the October-December harvest. A profile of one grower- originally a migrant from Burkina Faso who supported three wives and 16 children with two cocoa farms, one 30 acres and another 37 acres-noted that many of the workers were also migrants from Burkina Faso and Mali. The International Labor Organization is monitoring employment on cocoa farms, so that major chocolate makers by 2005 can certify that the beans were not produced by abused children.
quote: NYT 1 Oct 2002 Ethnic Clenching: Misrule in Ivory Coast By NORIMITSU ONISHI ABIDJAN, Ivory Coast, Sept. 30 — The conflict that has gripped this country for almost two weeks has its source in xenophobic policies unleashed nine years ago by the death of Félix Houphouët-Boigny. He was the autocrat who made Ivory Coast into one of Africa's most stable countries, keeping close links with France and emphasizing ethnic harmony in a region with sharp divisions. When he went, so did his vision. In the decade since, the three men who have led Ivory Coast have differed greatly, except on one front: all three have used ethnic and religious differences to gain and keep power, at the expense of national stability. The three leaders, Christians from the south, saw the cold numerical reality that they were outnumbered by Muslims from the north. So they invented a logic, called "ivoirité," which held that the southerners were the only pure Ivoirians. Over the years, through one ploy or another, the leaders made sure that Alassane D. Ouattara, a popular northerner who would almost surely have carried a general election, was disqualified from running for president. They said he was a phony Ivoirian, a citizen from neighboring Burkina Faso, even though he had once served as Mr. Houphouët-Boigny's prime minister. Under the politics of xenophobia, ordinary northerners began facing daily harassment from the authorities, including the police and military. Northerners were removed from positions of power in the security forces, or shunted aside. In large part it is these disaffected soldiers who rose up in three cities two Thursdays ago. And today the country's ethnic and religious divisions are physically manifest. Ivory Coast is split in half. The rebel soldiers control the north and the government clings to the south. So far, President Laurent Gbagbo's government has rejected any suggestion that internal problems may have caused the uprising. To do so would, of course, mean acknowledging misguided ethnic policies. At first the government said the uprising stemmed from a failed coup by the former military ruler, Gen. Robert Gueï, who during the unrest was killed with a bullet through the head. Then, through its media, the government shifted the blame to Mr. Ouattara and the president of Burkina Faso, Blaise Compaoré. The rebels were branded terrorists. At a meeting of West African leaders in Accra, Ghana, on Sunday, Abdoulaye Wade, the president of Senegal, who is known for his blunt talk, seemed to dismiss the Ivoirian government's explanation. "It was not a coup d'état," he said. "It was not a mutiny. It is a group of military — former military, including officers — who have taken up arms to make a number of demands." What Mr. Wade left unsaid, at least this time, was how the government's policies had pushed those soldiers and others to such a desperate act. Last year he was not so reserved on the subject, asserting that a native of Burkina Faso faced more discrimination living in Ivory Coast than an African living in France. The Ivoirian government's policies were condemned throughout West Africa, though more discreetly. On a continent with poorly educated, easily manipulated people, many believe that talk of ethnic purity opens a Pandora's box leading to catastrophes like the Rwandan genocide. In Nigeria, generals held power for years, partly by arguing that politicians would inflame ethnic and religious divisions for selfish goals. Since Nigeria was handed over to civilian politicians in 1999, about 10,000 Nigerians have been killed in ethnic and religious clashes fueled by politicians, more than at any other time in the country's history. West African leaders may feel little genuine sympathy for the Ivoirian government's present predicament. But given its regional importance, they quickly agreed in Accra on Sunday to send mediators and perhaps, eventually, a peacekeeping force. "A threat to Ivory Coast is a threat to all of us," said President Olusegun Obasanjo of Nigeria, the country that would almost certainly dominate any regional peacekeeping force. During the glory years under Mr. Houphouët-Boigny, Western and African tourists flocked to Abidjan, the so-called Paris of Africa, where they could go to the Hôtel Ivoire and skate on its ice rink. The hotel so impressed Mobutu Sese Seko, the ruler of Zaire, that he had a similar one built in Kinshasa (albeit without the rink). In the Ivoirian capital, Yamoussoukro, tourists visit Notre Dame de la Paix basilica, which is bigger than St. Peter's in Rome. But since a coup in 1999, instability has become part of everyday life here. Soldier mutinies have occurred every few months. Restaurants and clubs have had to factor in periodic curfews. The Gbagbo government has pursued the politics of ethnic exclusion. Tourists have scratched the country off their lists. The ice at the Hôtel Ivoire rink has melted. And what used to be one of Africa's most stable countries may soon witness the arrival of the West African intervention force — the same one deployed in recent years in failed states like Liberia and Sierra Leone.
quote:News 24 SA 4 Oct 2002 Ivory Coast's demons are back Abidjan - Ivory Coast's ethnic demons are coming back to haunt it, two weeks after a rebellion, which has seen mostly Muslim rebels from the north - soldiers who had fled into exile, and mutineers - seize half the west African cocoa-producing nation. The demons, some let loose by former leaders, are national identity, xenophobia, tribal tensions, and animosity between the predominantly Muslim and animist north and the mostly Christian south. President Felix Houphouet-Boigny, who ruled from independence from France in 1960 until his death in 1993, was able to keep the demons bottled up, but they emerged triumphant as soon as he was gone. President Laurent Gbagbo, a Christian from the southwest, set up a National Reconciliation Forum towards the end of last year in a bid to end several years of political violence, but it manifestly failed to bring Ivory Coast's disparate population of 16 million together. The country is now cut in half, with the rebels controlling part of the centre and the whole of the north, from Guinea to Ghana, while the loyalist army controls the south and the Atlantic seaboard. The two sides were due on Friday to sign a ceasefire as a prelude to examining the rebels' grievances. The last census, in 1995, which gave Ivory Coast a population of 15 million (it is estimated to have increased by a million since then), showed that close to a third of the population - 4.5 million - were foreign-born. Most of the "foreign Ivorians" were immigrants who had come from nearby west African states to work. Houphouet-Boigny encouraged the migrants to come to Ivory Coast to work in the cocoa plantations - under his rule, the country became the world's biggest producer, now exporting 40% of the world total - or to set up businesses. He gave them land, government jobs, and the right to vote. In 1990, Gbagbo, running against Houphouet-Boigny in presidential elections, contested that policy, accusing the president of using the foreigners as "electoral fodder". But it was Houphouet-Boigny's successor as president, Henri Konan Bedie, who campaigned from 1995 for the concept of "Ivorianness" - excluding foreigners, and Ivorians with foreign roots, from the mainstream. That explosive concept quickly saw Muslim immigrants from countries such as Burkina Faso and Mali make common cause with their "brothers" in the north of Ivory Coast. In many cases they were ethnic Dioulas, from a tribe that spreads across half a dozen countries in the region. In recent years, conflict between locals and immigrants over land has become a major problem, particularly in the southwest, leading to thousands of Burkinabes being displaced, and some of them killed. Even if the rebels advance south into territory controlled by Houphouet-Boigny's tribe, the Bouale, its political and military heart will remain in the north. Some pro-government newspapers in Abidjan are fanning the flames by describing leading opposition figure and former prime minister Alassane Ouattara, a Muslim Dioula from the northern town of Kong who has taken refuge with the French ambassador in Abidjan, as a Burkinabe. The rebels are making it clear they are fed up with such discrimination. "We're sick of being described as Malians, as Burkinabes," said one. "We're Ivorians, like everybody else. Enough is enough." Dozos, a hunter caste renowned for their markmanship, and reputed to have mystical powers, are also fighting alongside the rebels. Abidjan has long accused Ouattara of using Dozos as a private army. A diplomat in Abidjan opined that the current crisis was a clear posthumous indication of the role "the old man", as Houphouet-Boigny was respectfully known, played during his 33 years in power. "He alone, like Tito in Yugoslavia, was capable of keeping the country united." Ouattara, whose nickname, from his initials, is ADO, took refuge with the French ambassador during the first day of the uprising, with the blessing of the government. Defence Minister Moise Lida Kouassi warned at the time: "If anyone touches a single hair on ADO's head this country will explode." Since then, many of the officials of Ouattara's Rally of Republicans party have been arrested and others are in hiding, as the security forces, officially hunting down rebels, have stormed into shantytowns inhabited largely by migrants, where they have burnt down hundreds of shacks. The Burkinabes and other foreigners are now the best customers of the vendors selling rosettes in the Ivorian colours of orange, white and green - wearing their "patriotism" on their lapels. - Sapa-AFP
Mugabe is a homegrown tyrant who leads armed factions against the freedom loving people of Zimbabwe. That nation's woes in no way resemble the difficulties facing the Ivory Coast in the form of virulently anti-Christian, Islamic-Fascist insurgents of the sort that have sown despair, havoc, mass death and destruction from the Horn of Africa to the Sudan to the Ivory Coast.
Yours is a lot of posting to demonstrate the SOLE reason Chirac sent his mercenaries to the Ivory Coast -- not Zimbabwe -- was to help his BIG COCOA and BIG CHOCOLATE buddies. If Zimbabwe was a major source of COCOA BEANS, French mercenaries would be THERE now.
The frosting on Chiraq's cupcake is that his policy of appeasement toward the Ivorian anti-democrat, Islamic-Fascist guerrillas provides a perfect fit with his Neo-Vichy surrender to radical Islamists in the hope Al-Qa'ida will leave Gay Paree free of mass destruction and mass death ala Bloody Tuesday -- 11 September 2001.
One can be certain had the Islamic-Fascist rebels not threatened BIG COCOA interests creating shortages and driving up costs, France would be no more concerned with the plight of Native Ivorians than he has been with that of the people of Zimbabwe or Iraq.
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BTW, having never met a murderous tyrant he could not call a good friend, Chirac this year invited Mugabe to Gay Paree for fraternal hugs, kisses, feasting, shopping sprees and luxuriating in the lap of French luxury.
The EUropeon left -- aghast and enraged at the visit of President Bush to England -- seemed quite happy to look the other way at Chirac's hosting of Mugabe in France.
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Revolting, could you please stop calling them mercenaries? Even if you were correct about the French leadership's motives, the soldiers on the ground are still just that- soldiers following orders to protect France's national interests.
I thought that invading Iraq was a good idea and I was pissed off at France too, but please don't confuse the issue with hateful misinformation.
The FRENCH FOREIGN LEGION is a band of mercenaries. Its noncommissioned officer ranks are comprised primarily of individuals who are not French citizens, men who traveled to France for the purpose of offering their soldiering skills or soon to be acquired skills for hire, who will be offered French citizenship upon honorable completion of their multi-year tour of duty as mercenaries.
It is no secret the French have been employing the MERCENARIES of the FRENCH FOREIGN LEGION for decades as part of their colonialist and neo-colonial doings on the continent of Africa.
I think it perfectly reasonable to point out that as the French -- who had no troops massed on the borders of Iraq and had no intention of committing any forces to the liberation or pacification or rebuilding of that nation -- were piously sermonizing on the need for coalitions, UNSC resolutions beyond 1441, unilateralism, cowboyism, adverturism, pacificism and the abject admission of failure that is dispatching troops to solve a problem, Chirac had sent French mercenaries to kill in his WAR for COCOA BEANS on behalf of his BIG CHOCOLATE buddies without Kofi's permission.
And the "pacifist" GERMANS, four months after the initial French invasion, put their stamp of approval on the French neo-colonialist aggression by voting for a UNSC resolution under Chapter VII of the UN Charter -- same as UNSCR 1441 -- authorizing the use of military force in the Ivory Coast.
The fun fact is that three out of the six companies that use 80% of the cacao are US-based.
quote: 80 percent of the chocolate market is controlled by six multinationals. Three—Mars, Philip Morris (owners of Kraft, Jacobs, Suchard, Côte d’Or, Milka) and Hershey—are American and the other three—Nestlé (Switzerland), Cadbury-Schweppes (UK) and Ferrero (Italy)—are European.
So whose interests were the French protecting, again? Oh yes. European chocolate industry.
It might also be worth pointing out that the military base was established long before the independence of Ivory Coast, and only after the clashes started, more soldiers were sent - together with US and UK troops (as the quotes from various sources in my previous post indicates).
quote: Mr Boucher of the US State Department said Washington believed that the presence of the 2,500 French troops and the upcoming summit rendered a UN peacekeeping force "not necessary" at this time.
UNITED NATIONS, Oct 31 (Reuters) - Security Council members condemned on Thursday a failed coup attempt in the West African nation of Ivory Coast and pledged their full support for its government.
Security Council members asked all parties to resolve the current crisis by peaceful means and to refrain from any action or statement that could undermine or slow the search for a negotiated settlement," said Ambassador Martin Belinga-Eboutou of Cameroon, the council president for October.
"Security Council members also asked all parties to respect human rights, in particular with respect to civilians, and to bring to justice those responsible for violating these rights," Belinga-Eboutou told reporters.
Members of the 15-nation body also pressed for the rapid deployment of a 2,000-strong West African force, to replace soldiers from France, the former colonial power, who have been monitoring a cease-fire in place for the past 13 days, he said.
And it's hard to see how the USA couldn't be informed or consulted when you read this:
State Department Spokesman Boucher (September 25): ...."At 8:30 a.m. local time in the Ivory Coast, 4:30 Eastern Standard Time, French forces secured the International Christian Academy. All faculty and students are safe at this time. I do want to take this opportunity to thank the Government of France for its efforts to secure the school and ensure the safety of the occupants."
As for the "'pacifist' Germans"... It might be worth noting that the resolution was made unanimously. Does that mean that the USA backed up the French "neo-colonial" efforts, too?
The Ivory Coast exports 40 percent of the world's cocoa beans and EUropeons consume 40 percent of the world's cocoa bean production.
Last I looked, EUropeons do not much care for most American chocolate products. Not enough butter fat.
The white supremacist, imperialist, colonialist French established their military presence in the Ivory Coast when the nation was a colony of France to keep the native Ivorians in involuntary servitude to their very white masters. France maintains its neo-colonialist, white supremacist attitude toward native Ivorians. Your point is what exactly???
I indicated above the UNSC vote on the resolution "legitimizing" Chirac's WAR for COCOA on behalf of his BIG CHOCOLATE buddies was 15-0. America is a permanent member of the UNSC comprised of 15 members.
The USA was principled in supporting force in Iraq, but clearly offered Chiraq a fig leaf resolution on the Ivory Coast to cover his shameful behavior. I do not support the US decision to provide cover for Chirac's horrid behavior.
France and Germany were HYPOCRITES and unprincipled to oppose use of force to enforce UNSC resolutions in Iraq, while supporting use of force in the Ivory Coast when the UNSC had provided no such authorization.
I am consisent in supporting the use of force to enforce UNSC resolutions passed prior to the start of hostilities in Iraq.
As France's for-profit invasion of the Ivory Coast enforced no prior UNSC resolutions, I stand opposed to Chiraq's patronizing, anti-democratic, racist, and unjust war and neo-colonialist adventurism. And no "face-saving" UNSC resolution passed after the French perpetrated their crimes absolves Chiraq.
Chiraq should be brought before the International Criminal Court for war crimes, crimes against humanity and other violations of international law.
quote: ...to harvest cocoa beans in Ivory Coast. The West African nation supplies 43 percent of U.S. cocoa, the main ingredient of chocolate. Mercury News
quote: The $13 billion U.S. chocolate industry is heavily dominated by just two firms - Hershey's and M&M Mars - who control two-thirds of the market. Unfortunately, both of these companies fall into the category of those companies who use large amounts of Ivory Coast cocoa, and whose products are almost certainly produced in part by slavery.
quote: Gbagbo, like his predecessors, has inflamed racial tensions by pushing an "Ivoirité" policy, which favored natives and left many foreign-born residents with few rights. The rebels have targeted leading proponents of this divisive concept, including Interior Minister Emile Boga Doudou, who introduced new national identity cards that include digital fingerprints and photographs — and come in different colours depending on a person's origin. Doudou was shot dead in the rebellion. Government soldiers, meantime, have rounded up foreigners and police burned neighborhoods after President Gbagbo said that they would "clean" insalubrious areas. "We are not safe. We no longer dare go beyond the fence," says Mariah, a refugee from Liberia who lives in a makeshift camp in Abidjan.
Into this confusion, France last week sent some 70 soldiers from the 11th Parachute Brigade to set up a tactical headquarters for the 1,000 French troops already deployed. The troops' arrival marks a shift in France's policy toward her former African colonies. In the past, France regularly sent soldiers to prop up governments and dictators close to Paris. But following criticism of France's role in the 1994 Rwandan genocide — France allegedly continued to arm and support Rwanda's Hutu-led government even after the murder of 800,000 Tutsi and moderate Hutu began — President Chirac declared that the age of unilateral action was over.
The Foreign Ministry in Paris still insists that French troops will not "play an active role in any military conflict." But the French soldiers in Ivory Coast are clearly intended to do more than just distribute food and protect their countrymen. "There is no question of allowing the Ivory Coast to be destabilized," says a Foreign Ministry spokesman. "France supports the legitimately elected government of Laurent Gbagbo."
Faced with the meltdown of what was once the economic powerhouse of francophone West Africa, France has been forced to find a balance between large-scale intervention and doing nothing, says Bruno Tertrais, senior research fellow at the Foundation for Strategic Research in Paris. "France has taken the middle road, hoping that the mere presence of French forces may act as a deterrent against fighting."
But the French presence may actually further inflame racial divisions. "The French are like our mother and father, but now they are taking sides between one child and the other," rebel spokesman Corporal Serge Kofi told TIME last week. "We had confidence in the French, but giving logistical aid [to government forces] is the same as arming the enemy." With distrust on both sides growing and thousands of Ivorians taking to the streets, the prospects for peace look slim. Time Magazine
As one commentator said "The rebels blame Gbaga and France. Gbaga loyalists blame the rebels and France." Halifax Conference
Years of colonialist and neo-colonialist degradation and exploitation as a captive people of the white supremacist, French imperialists who have never and will never respect Ivorian borders, Ivorian rule of law or Ivorians is responsible for the insurgency, guerrilla activity and terrorism perpetrated by Chirac's Islamo-Fascist allies working to tobble the constitutional and sovereign head of state of Ivoria.
Kraft Food gives as a gift to the Ivorian peoples cheesy pasta products.
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